Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease.

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose as it travels down the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose is then absorbed by the liver before it is released into the bloodstream. Glucose, amino acids and fat are what powers all the cells in the body, mainly the nerve cells of the brain. The pancreas is tasked with keeping blood sugar levels constant in the body by releasing metabolic hormones. Metabolic hormones are a key component in instructing muscle, fat and liver cells to absorb glucose.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system mistakenly identifies healthy β-cell in the pancreas as foreign bodies and deploys T cells to destroy them. The resulting deficiency means that glucose can no longer be moved out of the bloodstream and into cells that convert it into the energy that your body needs. Too much glucose in the bloodstream for a long period of time can damage the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the organs. Over time though, complications from type 1 diabetes can affect major organs in the body like the nerves, heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys.


How Our Products Can Treat Type 1 Diabetes

In the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the aim of any therapy would be to preserve remaining pancreatic β-cell function, repair and regenerate areas of damage while preventing the immune system from targeting the remaining β-cells.

Scientists have only recently discovered the role autophagy, the mechanism by which a cell disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components [1], plays in the development of diabetes. It has been identified as essential for maintaining the architecture and function of pancreatic islet β-cells [2,3,4,5].

However, this natural process has been found to be impeded by persistently high concentrations of glucose. This results in oxidative stress which makes it harder for existing cells, newly formed cells or any newly introduced cells to survive. The resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been posited as being responsible for metabolic hormone resistance [6].

We use products derived from human baby umbilical cord tissues in all our therapy programs - Wharton's Jelly MSCs (wjMSCs). Our products are special because they can:

  • migrate to sites of injury (chemotaxis) [7,8].
  • communicate with and alter nearby cells (paracrine effect) [9,10,11].
  • encourage existing cells to self-repair (autocrine effect) [11,12].
  • encourage existing cells to adapt (plasticity) [13,14].
  • prevent rejection by regulating the immune system (immunomodulation) [15,16,17,18,19,20].
  • reduce inflammation (anti-inflammatory) [21,22,23].
  • protect and prevent remaining β-cells from dying (apoptosis) [21,22].
  • promote beta cell function [24].
  • transform into β-cells [20,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32].
  • survive and thrive in hypoxic and oxidative-stress environments [22].
  • induce autophagic activity [33].
  • prevent and reverse metabolic hormone resistance [22,23,24,30].
  • regulate blood sugar levels [24,27,34,37].
  • incapable of forming tumours [17,35,36].


Treating Type 1 Diabetes

There are currently five ongoing clinical trials exploring the use of wjMSCs in the treatment of type 1 diabetes [38,39,40,41,42].

In 2013, researchers at Qingdao University treated 29 patients with newly onset type 1 diabetes. They were divided into two groups where only one group was treated with wjMSCs while the other group was given only saline. All patients were observed for 21 months post-therapy during which their HbA1c and C-peptide levels were measured. An HbA1c test measures the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months [43] while C peptide is an accurate measure to preserve β-cell function [44]. At the end of the study, the patients in the wjMSCs group had significantly improved readings indicating that wjMSCs can restore the function of islet β cells over an extended period of time [45].

A collaborative clinical trial by the University of Miami and Xiamen University in 2016 combined wjMSCs therapy with bone marrow MSCs for 21 participants and did not treat the second group of 21 participants. Patients were assessed every three months for one year. The primary outcome measure was HbA1c and C-peptide area under the curve AUCC-Pep. In subjects with impaired β-cell function, the response is reduced as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) and/or the peak value [44]. At the end of the study, metabolic measures had improved in treated patients. Of the 21 participants, 20 experienced a 105.7% increase in AUCC-Pep, 49.3% increase in metabolic hormone area under the curve and a 12.6% decrease in HbA1c readings. The study also found that their fasting glycemia decreased by 24.4% and their daily injection and medication requirements decreased by 29.9% [46].

In an animal model of type 1 diabetes, scientists from National Yang Ming University injected wjMSCs into mice. Seven days later, they observed that the treated mice had islet-like cell clusters in the pancreas. These mice also had significantly lower blood glucose and higher survival rates than saline-treated mice. The wjMSCs were also able to reduce pro-inflammatory factors and increase anti-anti-inflammatory factors. At 23 days, higher human C-peptide and serum metabolic hormone levels were noted as well as improved glucose tolerance. They concluded that wjMSCs were able to differentiate into metabolic hormone-producing cells with immunomodulatory effects and repair the destroyed islets in mice models of type 1 diabetes [26]

Most recently in 2018, a team from the University of Perugia transplanted wjMSCs into mild and severe versions of type 1 diabetes in mice. After 216 days of observation, the study found that only mice with mild type 1 diabetes showed full and sustained remission of hyperglycemia while no remission was noted in severe models of the disease. This indicates that intervention in early stages of the disease is critical [34].


Cyrona’s Program

Achieving high standards in our work is of paramount importance to us. Depending on a patient’s needs, we combine our premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs with physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy and/or rehabilitative medicine. 

Learn more about our Products and Programs.


Why Choose Cyrona?

  • Latest cellular research and technology.
  • Unique, tailored therapy outlines.
  • Products that meet international standards.
  • Microbiology & clinical team with extensive experience in advanced medicine.
  • Board-certified physicians geared towards patient safety.
  • Fact-based information from clinical studies and trials.
  • No outlandish promises of a one-stop-cure or false improvement rates.


Therapy Packages

All our therapy packages come inclusive of:



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Airport transfer.
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Accommodation.
  • Hospital room for therapy.



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Hospital room for therapy.


How Do We Proceed

All our therapies are charged based on the number of wjMSCs and supplementary infusions required for the patient’s specific condition. As no two people are alike, our specialists review each patient’s medical reports before tailoring a therapy catered to addressing his or her individual needs.

You may chat with one of our Customer Care Representatives or send an e-mail detailing the patient’s condition to one of our Liaison Officers. It would expedite the process if you can provide us with:

  • Imaging results (MRI scan / CT scan / X-Ray).
  • Hematology reports (HbA1c / C-peptide blood test results).
  • Doctor’s assessment reports.
  • Pictures or videos of the patient (if relevant).

Upon getting in touch with us, a Liaison Officer evaluates and assigns the case to the specialist best equipped to treat the condition. A therapy, unique only to the patient, is drawn up and a price quoted accordingly.

Should you decide to proceed with therapy, our specialists require that all patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence before travelling to us for therapy. If the patient has had Cancer Marker Screening within the last 3 months, you may e-mail those results to us. In the event that the patient’s Cancer Marker Screening results are not satisfactory, our specialists will refuse to proceed with therapy. It is for this reason that we requests that patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence prior to travelling to us.

One week prior to arrival, a deposit payment is required in order to arrange accommodation and transportation.

Full payment is required to be made one-day prior to therapy commencement.

Post-treatment, our specialist will provide the patient with a post-treatment protocol as well as what to expect on his or her journey towards a better, and hopefully, healthier new life.


Kindly get in touch with us for the sources listed throughout this article.

Download a complimentary eBook about Type 1 diabetes

Download our eBook and receive our weekly in-depth and exclusive newsletter about Type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes eBook