Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition that develops over a long period of time.

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose as it travels down the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose is then absorbed by the liver before it is released into the bloodstream. Glucose, amino acids and fat are what powers all the cells in the body, mainly the nerve cells of the brain. The pancreas is tasked with keeping blood sugar levels constant in the body by releasing metabolic hormones. Metabolic hormones are a key component in instructing muscle, fat and liver cells to absorb glucose.

In type 2 diabetes, a combination of factors occur. The pancreas produces the metabolic hormones necessary for transporting glucose from the blood stream and into cells but the cells do not use glucose as efficiently as they should or reject it all together (metabolic hormone resistance). At the same time, due to metabolic, inflammatory or environmental factors, β-cells start to die (apoptosis) and metabolic hormone production falls (β-cell dysfunction). 

In response, the pancreas compensates by making more of metabolic hormones in the hopes of getting more glucose into the cells. Over time, due to prolonged exertion, the remaining β-cells wear themselves out (β-cell dysfunction) and metabolic hormone production falls lower still. Glucose then builds-up in the blood stream resulting in high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).

Too much glucose in the bloodstream for a long period of time can damage the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the organs. Over time though, complications from type 2 diabetes can affect major organs in the body like the nerves, heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys.


How Our Products Can Treat Type 2 Diabetes

In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the aim of any therapy would be to preserve remaining pancreatic β-cell function, reverse metabolic hormone resistance, repair and regenerate areas of damage while regulating the immune system or metabolic processes to prevent β-cell death.

Scientists have only recently discovered the role autophagy, the mechanism by which a cell disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components [1], plays in the development of diabetes. It has been identified as essential for maintaining the architecture and function of pancreatic islet β-cells [2,3,4,5].

However, this natural process has been found to be impeded by persistently high concentrations of glucose. This results in oxidative stress which makes it harder for existing cells, newly formed cells or any newly introduced cells to survive. The resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been posited as being responsible for metabolic hormone resistance [6].

We use products derived from human baby umbilical cord tissues in all our therapy programs - Wharton's Jelly MSCs (wjMSCs). Our products are special because they can:

  • migrate to sites of injury (chemotaxis) [7,8].
  • communicate with and alter nearby cells (paracrine effect) [9,10,11].
  • encourage existing cells to self-repair (autocrine effect) [11,12].
  • encourage existing cells to adapt (plasticity) [13,14].
  • prevent rejection by regulating the immune system (immunomodulation) [15,16,17,18,19,20].
  • reduce inflammation (anti-inflammatory) [21,22,23].
  • protect and prevent remaining β-cells from dying (apoptosis) [21,22].
  • promote beta cell function [24].
  • transform into β-cells [20,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32].
  • survive and thrive in hypoxic and oxidative-stress environments [22].
  • induce autophagic activity [33].
  • prevent and reverse metabolic hormone resistance [22,23,24,30].
  • regulate blood sugar levels [24,27,34,37].
  • incapable of forming tumours [17,35,36].


Treating Type 2 Diabetes

There are currently five ongoing clinical trials exploring the use of wjMSCs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes [38,39,40,41,42].

A 2014 study transplanted wjMSCs into 22 patients and monitored them over a one-year period. Outcomes were measured by glycemic control, C-peptide levels, metabolic hormone dosage, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-meal blood glucose (PBG), inflammatory markers and T lymphocyte counts. wjMSC transplantation significantly decreased the levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin, improved C-peptide levels and beta cell function as well as reduced markers of systemic inflammation and T lymphocyte counts [43].

That same year, a clinical trial transfused 18 patients with three doses of wjMSCs. The efficacy of the trial was determined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), HbA1c, C-peptide levels and T cell measurements. Six months later, the treated patients demonstrated significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels while C-peptide levels and T cell numbers were elevated. The study concluded that wjMSCs were able to effectively alleviate blood glucose and increases the generation of C-peptide and T cells [37].

The following year, a clinical trial conducted by Weifang Medical University transplanted wjMSCs in six patients. They were monitored for two years post-therapy. Following transplantation, the levels of fasting C-peptide and C-peptide levels increased significantly within one month and remained high during the follow-up period. Three patients became injection-free while the remaining three required reduced doses of metabolic hormone injections. Fasting plasma glucose and two-hour postprandial blood glucose levels were relatively stable in all the patients following transplantation. The trials finding indicate wjMSCs were able to improve islet function in patients with type 2 diabetes [44].

In 2016, researchers from Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Command treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with more than 10 years duration. These patients had been dependent on diabetes medication and injections as well as presented poor glycemic control (HbA1c of 7% - 10%). Of the 12 enrolled, only six were treated with four doses of wjMSCs. All participants were evaluated based on their fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test while their C-peptide secretion function, total C-peptide secretion function and model of metabolic hormone resistance were calculated. At the end of six months, the treated group had significantly lower fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), HbA1c levels and metabolic hormone resistance with significantly increased C-peptide secretion function and total C-peptide secretion function. The trial concluded that wjMSCs were able to improve glucose metabolism and β cell function [45].

A few months later, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University published their findings of a clinical trial involving 61 type 2 diabetes patients. Half the patients were treated with two doses of wjMSCs while the rest received placebo treatments. At the 36-month follow-up, the treated group presented significantly higher C-peptide levels and β-cell function with decreased blood glucose and HbA1c results or diabetic complications in comparison with the untreated group [46].   

In September of 2016, 28 patients with severe symptoms of Fontaine II-IV diabetic foot accompanied by varying degrees of lower extremity arterial disease were treated with wjMSCs by researchers from Anhui Medical University and Tongji University School of Medicine. The experimental group experienced significantly greater and more stable improvements in skin temperature, ankle-brachial pressure index, transcutaneous oxygen tension and fewer incidents of cramping pain. Most impressive was that three months after treatment, participants in this group showed a significant increase in formation of new blood vessels accompanied by complete or gradual ulcer healing [47].

Most recently in 2017, researchers from Chinese PLA General Hospital found that dependence on metabolic hormone injections decreased by 50% and glucose infusion rate (GIR) significantly improved in just six months after multiple intravenous injections of wjMSCs in patients with poor glycemic control. This result confirmed that wjMSCs reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients in part by ameliorating metabolic hormone resistance of peripheral tissues [22].


Cyrona’s Program

Achieving high standards in our work is of paramount importance to us. Depending on a patient’s needs, we combine our premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs with physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy and/or rehabilitative medicine. 

Learn more about our Products and Programs.


Why Choose Cyrona?

  • Latest cellular research and technology.
  • Unique, tailored therapy outlines.
  • Products that meet international standards.
  • Microbiology & clinical team with extensive experience in advanced medicine.
  • Board-certified physicians geared towards patient safety.
  • Fact-based information from clinical studies and trials.
  • No outlandish promises of a one-stop-cure or false improvement rates.


Therapy Packages

All our therapy packages come inclusive of:



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Airport transfer.
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Accommodation.
  • Hospital room for therapy.



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Hospital room for therapy.


How Do We Proceed

All our therapies are charged based on the number of wjMSCs and supplementary infusions required for the patient’s specific condition. As no two people are alike, our specialists review each patient’s medical reports before tailoring a therapy catered to addressing his or her individual needs.

You may chat with one of our Customer Care Representatives or send an e-mail detailing the patient’s condition to one of our Liaison Officers. It would expedite the process if you can provide us with:

  • Imaging results (MRI scan / CT scan / X-Ray).
  • Hematology reports (HbA1c / C-peptide blood test results).
  • Doctor’s assessment reports.
  • Pictures or videos of the patient (if relevant).

Upon getting in touch with us, a Liaison Officer evaluates and assigns the case to the specialist best equipped to treat the condition. A therapy, unique only to the patient, is drawn up and a price quoted accordingly.

Should you decide to proceed with therapy, our specialists require that all patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence before travelling to us for therapy. If the patient has had Cancer Marker Screening within the last 3 months, you may e-mail those results to us. In the event that the patient’s Cancer Marker Screening results are not satisfactory, our specialists will refuse to proceed with therapy. It is for this reason that we requests that patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence prior to travelling to us.

One week prior to arrival, a deposit payment is required in order to arrange accommodation and transportation.

Full payment is required to be made one-day prior to therapy commencement.

Post-treatment, our specialist will provide the patient with a post-treatment protocol as well as what to expect on his or her journey towards a better, and hopefully, healthier new life.


Kindly get in touch with us for the sources listed throughout this article.

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