Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder.

It is caused by the death of specific neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. ​These neurons are the main source of an organic chemical that functions both as a hormone and a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It affects how a person moves. It is a neurotransmitter that sends signals from the body to the brain and controls voluntary movement. It is also responsible for a broad array of behavioral processes such as mood, reward, addiction and stress.

The exact cause for this cell loss remains unknown. In Parkinson's disease, a loss of the nerve cells (axons) in a specific part of the brain and loss of a crucial organic chemical in the same area is observed [1]. Symptoms manifest as tremors, slowed movement, changes in speech and writing, rigid muscles, impaired balance and posture as well as loss of automatic movements such as blinking and smiling. 


How Our Products Can Treat Parkinson’s

We use products derived from human baby umbilical cord tissues in all our therapy programs - Wharton's Jelly MSCs (wjMSCs). The human brain is strictly regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This is a semipermeable endothelial membrane that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. It is a highly selective mechanism that allows only a select few types of cells, particles and molecules enter the brain. Our products are special because they can:

  • cross the endothelial brain barrier [2,3,4,5].
  • migrate to sites of injury (chemotaxis) [6,7].
  • communicate with and alter nearby cells (paracrine effect) [8,9,10].
  • encourage existing cells to self-repair (autocrine effect) [10,11,12].
  • prevent rejection by regulating the immune system (immunomodulation) [6,7,13,14,15,16,17,18,19].
  • prevent cells from dying (apoptosis) [6,7,9,20,25].
  • transform into neurons [21,25,26,27,28,29].
  • transform into the neurons that produce the required organic chemical [24].
  • promote the formation of axons (axogenesis) [22,23].
  • incapable of forming tumours [6,15,16,30].


Treating Parkinson’s

The use of wjMSCs in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in humans is currently in the clinical trial phase. There are only two currently ongoing trials registered for investigation [31,32]. In the meantime, animal models of Parkinson’s have shown considerable success in treatment with wjMSCs.  

In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of specific neurons affects the ability of the basal ganglia to inhibit contradictory movements. This causes individuals with Parkinson's disease to have difficulty initiating movements, rigidity and slow movement [33]. The rotation test has been used for decades to assess the motor asymmetry in animal models of Parkinson’s disease [34].

In 2009, researchers from the National Yang-Ming University transplanted wjMSCs into a Parkinsonian rat model. The wjMSCs treated group of rats rotated significantly less than those in the other two groups at all four monthly observations. They also found that the wjMSCs in the striatum were still viable four months after transplantation, without the need for immunological suppression [24].

Later that year, a study by Kansas State University established that wjMSCs significantly improved the clinical symptoms of rats with the number of specialised neurons in the injured site increasing. It also successfully ameliorated rotations in the pilot tests of rat models [15].

A team from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology found that wjMSCs, combined with human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF 165), conferred molecular protection to the organic chemical system in their 2011 study. The combination was modified with an adenovirus before transplantation into hemiparkinsonian rats. The researchers found that they were able to form specialised neuron-like cells in vivo (in the body). This was determined by measuring neuronal marker expressions. The transplantation also ameliorated rotations and reduced the loss of specialised neurons in the lesioned substantia nigra. They believe it was significantly enhanced by the VEGF expression in wjMSCs [35].

A 2013 study by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Korea transplanted wjMSCs derived from pigs into a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. It found that the pig wjMSCs partially recovered the mouse Parkinson’s model by showing an improvement in basic motor behaviour, as assessed by rotarod and bridge tests. These observations were further supported by the expression of markers, including nestin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), at the site of cell transplantation [36].

At the Yunnan Engineering Research Center of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Parkinsonian rhesus monkeys were divided into groups with only one group receiving wjMSCs therapy. Post-transplantation, instant behavior restorations were observed in the wjMSCs therapy group. Just one week later, the same group not only made more vigorous movements, but also showed good balance ability and had no handicap in the motor movements. By the fourth week, the rotation rate of the wjMSCs group had reduced to 16 turns per minute while the non-treatment group’s had increased to 34 turns per minute. By the end of five months, the wjMSCs group had a final rotation rate of 5 turns per minute and could control and stop in 10 minutes. The non-treatment group, however, had increased further to 40 turns per minute. Histological assessment of the monkeys’ brains showed that wjMSCs were able to protect specialised neurons from dying and also some neuron (brain cell) formation [37].

A study by Reliance Life Sciences Pvt Ltd treated one group of Parkinsonian rat models with wjMSCs while the sham group was given an irrelevant cell line. The animals were observed for 12 months with rotarod tests, forelimb placing tests, swim tests and behavioural assessment. Of the 15 rats in the wjMSCs group, 11 had significantly decreased rotarod scores by six weeks. Six of these rats went on to experience an 80% reduction in rotation by four to six months. In the swim test and forelimb placing test analyses, wjMSC-treated animals had improved motor coordination compared to untransplanted animals [38].

Three years later, a collaborative study by the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and the National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Tehran demonstrated neuronal/organic chemical signaling and differentiation in specialised wjMSCs. Post-transplantation, the wjMSCs survived, showed reduced rates of natural cell death (apoptosis) and led to recovery from rotations in Parkinsonian rats [39].


Cyrona’s Program

Achieving high standards in our work is of paramount importance to us. Depending on a patient’s needs, we combine our premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs with physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy and/or rehabilitative medicine. 

Learn more about our Products and Programs.


Why Choose Cyrona?

  • Latest cellular research and technology.
  • Unique, tailored therapy outlines.
  • Products that meet international standards.
  • Microbiology & clinical team with extensive experience in advanced medicine.
  • Board-certified physicians geared towards patient safety.
  • Fact-based information from clinical studies and trials.
  • No outlandish promises of a one-stop-cure or false improvement rates.


Therapy Packages

All our therapy packages come inclusive of:



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Airport transfer.
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Accommodation.
  • Hospital room for therapy.



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Hospital room for therapy.


How Do We Proceed

All our therapies are charged based on the number of wjMSCs and supplementary infusions required for the patient’s specific condition. As no two people are alike, our specialists review each patient’s medical reports before tailoring a therapy catered to addressing his or her individual needs.

You may chat with one of our Customer Care Representatives or send an e-mail detailing the patient’s condition to one of our Liaison Officers. It would expedite the process if you can provide us with:

  • Imaging results (MRI scan / CT scan / X-Ray).
  • Hematology reports (blood test).
  • Doctor’s assessment reports.
  • Pictures or videos of the patient (if relevant).

Upon getting in touch with us, a Liaison Officer evaluates and assigns the case to the specialist best equipped to treat the condition. A therapy, unique only to the patient, is drawn up and a price quoted accordingly.

Should you decide to proceed with therapy, our specialists require that all patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence before travelling to us for therapy. If the patient has had Cancer Marker Screening within the last 3 months, you may e-mail those results to us. In the event that the patient’s Cancer Marker Screening results are not satisfactory, our specialists will refuse to proceed with therapy. It is for this reason that we requests that patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence prior to travelling to us.

One week prior to arrival, a deposit payment is required in order to arrange accommodation and transportation.

Full payment is required to be made one-day prior to therapy commencement.

Post-treatment, our specialist will provide the patient with a post-treatment protocol as well as what to expect on his or her journey towards a better, and hopefully, healthier new life.


Kindly get in touch with us for the sources listed throughout this article.

Download a complimentary eBook about Parkinson's Disease

Download our eBook and receive our weekly in-depth and exclusive newsletter about Parkinson's Disease.

Parkinson's Disease eBook