Kidney Diseases

Kidney Diseases

Our kidneys are tasked with correcting the balance of salts and minerals in our blood, filtering out toxins and generating several important hormones.

Nephrons are the key working components of the kidney. Each nephron is composed of a renal corpuscle (glomerulus and Bowman's capsule) and a renal tubule. The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule of the renal corpuscle is the basic filtration units of the kidney while the renal tubule performs many functions critical to multi-organ regulation and immunomodulation such as:

  • Gluconeogenesis - generating glucose from non-carbohydrate substances.
  • Ammoniagenesis – regulating acidity.
  • Glutathione metabolism – regulating free radicals from exceeding the body's ability to neutralize and eliminate them.
  • Breakdown (catabolism) of peptide hormones, growth factors and cytokines into smaller units to release energy or to use in anabolic reactions.

Kidney disease arises when nephrons are damaged. This leads to sudden and short-lived diseases (acute kidney failure) or slow and progressive diseases (chronic kidney disease).

Acute kidney failure - also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury (AKI) - occurs when the kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from blood. When kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of waste accumulate and blood chemistry is unbalanced.

Diabetic nephropathy, also known as diabetic kidney disease, slowly progresses over the years. It is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Due to damage to the glomeruli, protein loss in the urine may become massive and cause a low serum albumin. This results in generalized body swelling (oedema) and nephrotic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may progressively fall as well. When the eGFR falls to 15ml/min/1.73m2, the patient is diagnosed with end-stage kidney/renal disease (ESKD / ESRD).

Glomerulonephritis refers to an inflammation of the glomerulus. This inflammation typically results in nephrotic and/or nephritic syndromes. Nephrotic syndrome is characterised by oedema with increased protein in the urine (proteinuria), increased fat in the blood and decreased protein in the blood. Nephritic syndrome is characterised by blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output and hypertension.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is most often caused by hypertension and/or diabetes. Hypertension increases the pressure on the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys where blood is cleaned. Over time, the increased pressure damages these vessels and kidney function begins to decline. With diabetes, increased blood sugar levels damage blood vessels in the kidneys thereby hindering their ability to clean blood efficiently and properly. Kidney failure occurs when the body becomes overloaded with toxins.

If left untreated, chronic kidney disease will eventually lead to kidney failure. Current treatments use hypertension and cholesterol medication such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to preserve kidney function. When the kidneys have completely failed or are close to failing (ESKD / ESRD), patients are put on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis until a donor kidney is found. However, organ availability does not come close to meeting demand.


How Our Products Can Treat Kidney Diseases

We use products derived from human baby umbilical cords in all our therapy programs - Wharton's Jelly MSCs (wjMSCs). Our products are special because they can:

  • reduce inflammation and oxidative stress [1,2].
  • improve renal function [2,3,4].
  • decrease serum urea nitrogen levels [2,3].
  • decrease serum creatinine levels [2,3,5].
  • increase creatinine clearance [2,5].
  • decrease urinary proteins [5].
  • reduce tubular injury score [2,3].
  • increase renal tubular cell proliferation [3,4].
  • reduce apoptotic events [3,4].
  • reduce renal fibrosis [4,6].
  • prevent rejection by regulating the immune system (immunomodulation) [7,8,9,10,11,12,13].
  • incapable of forming tumours [7,8,14,15,16].


Treating Kidney Diseases

There are currently numerous clinical trials exploring the use of wjMSCs in the treatment of kidney diseases. These have been registered but results and findings have yet to be posted [17,18,19,20].

In 2017, American researchers performed a clinical trial using 28 renovascular disease (RVD) patients. The intervention group (14 patients) received a single infusion of 100,000 or 250,000 of the patients’ own (autologous) adipose MSCs (aMSCs) per kilogram of body weight plus standardized medical treatment. 3 months after infusion, cortical perfusion and renal blood flow (RBF) rose in the post-stenotic kidney tissue (STK), contralateral kidney RBF increased and STK renal hypoxia decreased from 12.1% to 6.8% while single-kidney GFR remained stable [21].

In 2018, Iranian researchers published the findings of their 18-month study of 7 patients with CKD. They administered an intravenous infusion 1 to 2 million autologous bone marrow MSCs (bmMSCs) per kilogram of body weight. The primary endpoint was safety, which was measured by the number and severity of adverse events. Follow-up visits of all 7 patients did not observe any cell-related adverse events during the trial [22].

In 2019, a Chilean study intravenously infused 1 million autologous adipose MSCs (aMSCs) per kilogram of body weight into 6 CKD patients. Patients were stabilized and followed for 1 year prior to MSC infusion and 1 year following infusion. None patients presented with adverse effects. Patients experienced statistically significant improvement in urinary protein excretion; however, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not significantly decreased [23].


Cyrona’s Program

Achieving high standards in our work is of paramount importance to us. Depending on a patient’s needs, we combine our premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs with physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy and/or rehabilitative medicine. 

Learn more about our Products and Programs.


Why Choose Cyrona?

  • Latest cellular research and technology.
  • Unique, tailored therapy outlines.
  • Products that meet international standards.
  • Microbiology & clinical team with extensive experience in advanced medicine.
  • Board-certified physicians geared toward patient safety.
  • Fact-based information from clinical studies and trials.
  • No outlandish promises of a one-stop-cure or false improvement rates.


Therapy Packages

All our therapy packages come inclusive of:



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Airport transfer.
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Accommodation.
  • Hospital room for therapy.



  • Premium grade Passage 2 wjMSCs.
  • Treatment by qualified specialist(s).
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA).
  • Transportation to & from therapy session(s).
  • Hospital room for therapy.


How Do We Proceed

All our therapies are charged based on the number of wjMSCs and supplementary infusions required for the patient’s specific condition. As no two people are alike, our specialists review each patient’s medical reports before tailoring a therapy catered to addressing his or her individual needs.

You may chat with one of our Customer Care Representatives or send an e-mail detailing the patient’s condition to one of our Liaison Officers. It would expedite the process if you can provide us with:

  • Imaging results (MRI scan / CT scan / X-Ray).
  • Haematology reports (blood test).
  • Doctor’s assessment reports.
  • Pictures or videos of the patient (if relevant).

Upon getting in touch with us, a Liaison Officer evaluates and assigns the case to the specialist best equipped to treat the condition. A therapy, unique only to the patient, is drawn up and a price quoted accordingly.

Should you decide to proceed with therapy, our specialists require that all patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence before travelling to us for therapy. If the patient has had Cancer Marker Screening within the last 3 months, you may e-mail those results to us. In the event that the patient’s Cancer Marker Screening results are not satisfactory, our specialists will refuse to proceed with therapy. It is for this reason that we request that patients have Cancer Marker Screening performed in their country of residence prior to travelling to us.

One week prior to arrival, a deposit payment is required in order to arrange accommodation and transportation.

Full payment is required to be made one-day prior to therapy commencement.

Post-treatment, our specialist will provide the patient with a post-treatment protocol as well as what to expect on his or her journey towards a better, and hopefully, healthier new life.


Kindly get in touch with us for the sources listed throughout this article.

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